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Trends in Genetics:长非编码RNA的不稳定进化

2015-01-04 14:33  
内容快照:

Trends in Genetics封面:长非编码RNA的不稳定进化

最近转录组分析表明,在多细胞真核生物基因组中,编码长非编码RNA(lncRNAs)的基因数目可媲美或超过蛋白质编码基因。虽然越来越多的研究表明,许多lncRNAs具有细胞功能,但对于大多数lncRNAs的生物学和进化意义仍然有相当大的争议。

在2014年10月Trends in Genetics期刊封面文章中,Aurélie Kapusta和Cédric Feschotte回顾了我们当前所知的lncRNA进化模式,选择势力和分子基础。封面插图将lncRNA指令系统的不稳定的和可塑性的性质(lncRNA进化的两个关键特性)压缩成一个箱子。

lncRNA基因在进化过程中,通过来自预功能基因组元件(诸如被禁的转座子)的材料的回收经常出现和修饰。作者认为,lncRNAs的快速旋转和多样化代表一个重要马达基本特征变化和基因组创新。

Volatile evolution of long noncoding RNA repertoires: mechanisms and biological implications.Aurélie Kapusta, Cédric Feschotte.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2014.08.004


Highlights


lncRNAs show weak selective constraint, even when clearly functional.
Gain and loss of lncRNA genes occurs at very high pace during evolution.
lncRNAs mostly evolve de novo.
Bidirectional promoters and transposable elements (TEs) promote the birth of lncRNAs.
Genomes rich in TEs may have more complex and malleable transcriptomes.

Thousands of genes encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in all vertebrate genomes thus far examined. The list of lncRNAs partaking in arguably important biochemical, cellular, and developmental activities is steadily growing. However, it is increasingly clear that lncRNA repertoires are subject to weak functional constraint and rapid turnover during vertebrate evolution. We discuss here some of the factors that may explain this apparent paradox, including relaxed constraint on sequence to maintain lncRNA structure/function, extensive redundancy in the regulatory circuits in which lncRNAs act, as well as adaptive and non-adaptive forces such as genetic drift. We explore the molecular mechanisms promoting the birth and rapid evolution of lncRNA genes, with an emphasis on the influence of bidirectional transcription and transposable elements, two pervasive features of vertebrate genomes. Together these properties reveal a remarkably dynamic and malleable noncoding transcriptome which may represent an important source of robustness and evolvability.

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